An Old Prophecy Confirmed? On the Uses and Abuses of Laptop Learning

cagedIn my third month of writing here about 21st century education, way back in March 2007, I put the pom-poms down, stopped cheerleading, and started thinking about all the ways schools can kill the learning that is possible when students have a simple laptop and a blog. This snippet from a post from back then says it all, and my views haven’t changed on this one. (Add “and laptop learning” whenever you see “student blogging”):

[My] last two or three posts–and the comments, thank you – have conjured depressing visions in my head at random moments. I’m a bit worried about the future of student blogging.

I fear we teachers are going to ruin it for the learners.

“Blogging is just another way to turn in homework.” That’s the sentence that scares me. Because that’s how non-blogging teachers, and perhaps those unfamiliar with literacy pedagogy – communication across the curriculum, writing to learn, authentic writing, and more – will probably use blogging in the classroom.

And it will become drudgery. And the students (not learners here, because “teacher” can’t let go of being “teacher,” dominating, squelching, and dictating to students) will bang out the minimum for “blog homework,” as in old days, and turn to something authentic. Like their MySpace.

Toward a solution (or at least mitigation): train teachers in the philosophy of blogging before letting them use it in their classrooms.

[Update 6 hours later: I misspoke when I said “my views haven’t changed” since I wrote this. They have. I don’t think any longer that “training teachers in the philosophy of blogging” (or 1:1 learning) is enough to make it work, if they’re not also mentored by someone who is immersed in the 21st century learning movement – and that mentor is acknowledged and supported. Teacher training is no evidence of teacher learning.]

Since writing this, our school has become a 1:1 Apple laptop school. All the students have blogs. They have iLife, so they can podcast, make iMovies, the whole nine yards. One of the students in my PLN class, Younsuk (you may have read about his Basketball Without Borders project, in which he and another student have arranged Skype interviews – in class – with Asian college and pro basketball players, and podcasted them on their blog), recently wrote the below on his “schooly” (required) blog. It’s just a snapshot, and I wish he’d have offered a possible solution for getting students to write on their blogs without somehow requiring it. I also wish he’d have the opportunity to learn that visual communication, the language of film, is a valuable (and not easy) skill to develop as well. But still, there’s much to learn from him. And he makes me wonder if my “prophecy” is coming true. Here it is:

[Our school] thinks we’re cool because the students carry around MacBooks. But carrying around a laptop doesn’t make a school cool, although it will certainly make the school look cool. Did [the school] get MacBooks so we can look cool? I hope not.

What are some of the cool things we do with our laptops?

[Most] students would be shouting, “iMovies!” right now. It is unique that we don’t write papers for our English final exam. Instead, we make movies using iMovie. But, is that really cool? Because I think there’s more potential to this than making a funny iMovie just to get grades for English class. I would understand it if it was for a movie making class. But does making iMovie enhance our skills in English…?

[Our school] is just trying to look cool by trying to use MacBooks whenever we can.

I’ve had too many teachers assign us to “make an iMovie” for this and that. I had to make an iMovie for my World Geography class and Asian Studies class. I was surprised when even my Spanish teacher told me to make an iMovie. It is obvious [our school] is trying too hard…to look cool.

And out of all my classes, Writing Seminar is one class that I think “is cool.” Yep, you guessed it right, it’s his class.

Personal Learning Network, or PLN is what we’ve been doing the whole semester in this class. We use our MacBooks to interact with people from all over the world, and learn how to write for [a] true audience. Not just that, we learn how to accomplish stuff through networking and meeting new cool people.

I have done some big things in this class. I have interviewed Asian college basketball players, uploaded the interview on our website to spread their words and break the stereotype of “Asians can’t play ball.” Some of them play professional basketball right now. I’ve interacted with some real people.

It’s much easier to see what I’ve done if you click here.

Now that’s the right thing to do with these laptops.

Macbook gives us “true audience.” In other words, it is real world out there.

While the MacBooks in the Writing Seminar classroom are shining, the other MacBooks in other classrooms are crying. They say, “what the hell am I doing here?”

I replied to Younsuk on his post, and will share that here as well:

I have a fantasy that, because you and others honestly express yourselves about your educational experience on your blogs, you eventually have an influence on how your classes are conducted – in other words, you teach your teachers and admin how it feels to be their student.

It’s delicate. You shouldn’t attack individuals or be too harsh, but at the same time shouldn’t mute your criticisms out of fear.

This medium can be powerful. Student voice can be powerful if it uses it. I’m thinking you and Soojin Lee and a few others could intentionally create change by focusing your efforts on starting discussion online about what changes you’d like to see.

I’ve read your entire blog tonight. I’ll be using some of your quotes in an upcoming post, and possibly in a book I hope to write this summer.

One last word, in defense of teachers: they’re new at this. Many of them don’t get it at all. So patience is only fair. They’re trying. But you can help them get it through good-willed criticism and instruction. You can teach them.

Stay in touch, Younsuk. You know where to find me.

I share this for many reasons, but primarily this: it’s not enough to “give professional development workshops” to teachers about 21st century education, and equate that teacher seat-time with effective training. Let’s be honest about that. We all know seat-time and certificates are no surer proof of learning for teachers than they are for students.

Younsuk’s situation brings up another important issue as well: laptop schools that don’t truly, really, really have true, true, true “coordination” of instruction risk burning students out with “three iMovie final projects,” as is Younsuk’s case, all due the same week. A good movie takes an hour of editing for every minute of the final product. I wonder how many minutes these students are expected to produce for their finals. It’s scary. And the solution is a real tech coordinator who monitors the load of production the same way a bus coordinator coordinates a workable bus schedule. You can’t leave this up to chance.

Finally, Younsuk’s mention that Macbooks help learning by allowing students to connect and network with the world is something no teacher or administrator is going to understand without doing it. It’s 20th century education with a shiny bell and whistle otherwise. Just a new way to turn in homework. The immigrants in power will think it’s cutting edge, but the students will think otherwise.

I’m curious what all of you read into this. I give credit to my school for trying to pioneer this territory, and expect that things will improve. But it’s not an easy task.

You can see all those old “Saving Classroom Blogging from Teachers” posts from Spring ’07 here. The ideas there are arguably more relevant, now that blogging and digital storytelling and all that are spreading, than they were a year ago when I wrote them. The comments, as usual, hold the gold:

Photo credit: “Portrait of a Monkey” by s-a-m

28 thoughts on “An Old Prophecy Confirmed? On the Uses and Abuses of Laptop Learning”

  1. I’m moving to a district next year that is considering a 1:1 initiative in a few years. I think many schools and community members look to a 1:1 as an expensive “answer” to what they’re not doing now- whatever that is.

    The training and knowledge that is necessary for staff- and more importantly the time to gain that understanding is often not part of the plan. Many schools have given teachers and students laptops without the training and fundamental knowledge of connected learning, scaffolding and how these concepts impact learning.

    1:1 initiatives in many cases have yet to mature from an exercise of acquisition to an investment in learning.

  2. Great post, Clay. Next year, we (3 teachers) are sharing a lab exclusively for us, and I am trying to figure out how to make it authentic for our 7th grade students. It is very difficult when we can’t even broadcast book projects for their parents to see on a password protected site. Wish us luck.

    Jethros last blog post..Reflection: On Arguing

  3. Clay,
    Great post! We are attempting a 1-to-1 pilot at the middle and high school level this fall. We’re starting with the teachers next year, and then the students the following.
    This post will be required reading for staff in the pilot. When I see the authentic, student centered learning that Younsuk had in your class, I am energized about the possibilities. I need to balance that with the understanding that not all teachers will reach the potential of the technology. And staff must also learn to both teach differently at appropriate times, and coordinate with those around them.
    Thanks for keeping me grounded.

    M. Walkers last blog post..e-Learning Summit Breakout Session 4: E-Engage: "Doing" School 2.0

  4. It sounds like, in some schools, iMovies (and podcasts, etc.) are the new PowerPoint: tools that are overused because they appear to be the next best thing.

    The real best thing is, as it’s always been, creative content shared in whatever form the artist/creator/learner is most comfortable using as a vehicle for expression.

    dianes last blog post..Connections

  5. I enjoyed reading your students comments as well as your response. I understand how your student feels but there are many schools in my district who would love to be able to voice a complaint like this. Not all schools have all this technology available to them or teachers willing to use it, even in the ways these teachers are. I also liked your suggestion that students help teach the teachers who are new at this. This is an appropriate way for students to help direct instruction. Maybe the students could think of alternate ways to show mastery of the subject area and suggest these to the teacher. Sometimes teachers need fresh ideas from students who would be willing to try something new. What a great way to encourage critical thinking and problem solving!

    Pat Hensleys last blog post..Computers are like cars

  6. @Clay
    Thanks for the great post. We are working towards a 1:1 project in about three years and pointing out some of the schooliness pitfalls using these technologies is very eye opening. Much thanks.

  7. I think that this is a trap many 1:1 schools encounter, forcing the tech and “making good use” of the expensive new toys. If students are not seen to be making iMovies constantly, the board will question the program and revoke the funding.

    What if we did this instead? What if we gave the kids the laptops, because there is no doubt in my mind that kids need anytime anywhere access to these tools, and we relied on them to decide when and how they wanted to use them?

    What if, instead of teachers continually telling students how to learn or how to communicate their learning, we instead formed a partnership with the students and allowed choice in student products? What if we stopped worrying about the cost of the laptops and allowed some students to leave them in their backpack for days on end if they simply did not need them?

    So, in this scenario, the kids have the technology. The teachers have the curriculum and the learning outcomes, benchmarks, standards, whatever, and the students can use or not use the technology tools based on their learning styles, interests and aptitudes. Students and teachers need to learn about the technology tools and what their options are, but teachers only need to assign a task like this: Show me that you have learned X. Use whatever medium you like, imovie, pencil and paper, blog, podcast, etc. Communicate to me and your peers (or dare I say even an authentic audience somwehere) what you have learned. You have a laptop and all the tools you need. Bonus points for using the tech tools in a way that we have not seen before. Let the students teach us about how they use technology.

    What if we stopped trying to force the technology and instead allowed different students to use different tools based on them, not us?

    Imagine all the students, learning things this way….

    Michael McGlade (mcglaysia)s last blog post..What is Web 2.0?

  8. ‘technology is subversive’

    It is like a scalpel cutting at the cancer of a redundant pedagogy, but it is only part of the cure.

    David Hargreaves a UK curriculum advisor has presented a comprehensive plan for what he calls ‘Curriculum Redesign’.
    He suggests that there are 9 areas that need to develop in concert to move curriculum forward, of which Learning Technology is one.

    Over the last 3 years as a promoter of Learning Technologies I have realised that technology alone, despite its promise will not reform pedagogy. In actually fact the efficiencies that ‘basic digitalisation’ offers can mean that teachers actually get through more content and test it even more!

    The concern with outcome based funding, as mentioned above, is that just using iMovie is not an ‘artefact of learning’ – unless of course it is just about content regurgitation – then why use creative technology at all when Skinner showed ‘learn-test-rpt-till perfect’ is far more efficient and you don’t even need technology!

    Before you start 121 make sure that the evidence of learning is clearly defined as the ‘bright and shiny’ effect can blind many administrators and boards.

    I think the right technology at the right time (RTRT)i s a far better maxim than 121. RTRT means technology’s use is mediated by the transaction of learning. 121 is about a top down commodity based approach, broadly solution oriented, but not aggregated from individual students and teacher needs.

    In terms of moving towards 1to1 it is vital that you consider the readiness of your staff to adapt their practice, the incentives you might use to motivate, the process of school cultural shift. If you do not do this; at best you will just digitalise current pedagogy at worst it will fail and the ne’ersayers will have their day.

    The technology is ready, the students are ready, some educators are ready – I believe that 1to1 will be looked back on in 10 years, as not the thing that changed education, but as the litmus test that demonstrated schools readiness to reform their pedagogy and practice. Some schools will be liberated and ignite, some will slow burn and others will blow out!

    Clay your students work and opinions just show how much work there has to be done to rewire educators’ synapses rather than increasing access to school networks.

    Gilbert Halcrows last blog post..Web 2.0, the Axolotl and Communication Literacy

  9. Beware of those selling snake oil.

    I think too often schools get sold on new technologies as a miracle cure for problems they can’t quite identify. 1:1 and Interactive Whiteboards are the current big over indulgences or should I say distractions in k12 education. When it comes to tech integration I fear many educators forget what schools are for. The focus should always be on the content and the student, not the new expensive tools. Too many educators are looking to these tools expecting them to do things they simply cannot do in and of themselves. To fully utilize these tools really requires a much greater shift on the part of the educator, one your student eloquently identifies here.

    I can’t remember who said this but, “First we do new things in old ways, then we do old things in new ways, and finally we do new things in new ways.” This is consistent with every innovation that has developed in the course of human history. Why shouldn’t the same be true for education. Forget notions of immigrants and natives, this trend has always been the case. Students today only have a different perspective on the digital world because they experience it from the student point of view. It is difficult for their teachers to see how to do new things in new ways because they have not experienced old things in new ways from the student point of view. The disconnect is simply an inability to properly empathize with the experience of their students.

    A SMARTboard is not going to make your classroom more engaging. A 1:1 laptop program is not going to make our kids smarter. These are tools that ultimately rely on a teacher to put into action. Like any tool it is what you do with it that determines its effectiveness. Great tech enhanced learning environments ultimately are the product of these tools being utilized in a way different than what was necessary to sell the school on their investment. If anything these tools, and the mandates some districts place on teachers to use them, are more a wedge in favor of constructivist teaching practices, PBL, or progressive education. You will never get a behaviorist majority staff sold on 1:1 by saying, “With this tool your students will have a greater ability to do student centered projects, enhance self guided learning, and exponentially increase the ways they have to express themselves creatively.” Instead, sadly, these tools have to be sold to schools with the promise that their inclusion will enhance the teachers ability to do what they already do. It is not until well after they have been integrated that most teachers will make that shift and fundamentally change what they do, how they teach, and their role in the classroom.

    Carl Andersons last blog post..Did You Ever Wonder?

  10. At first iMovies seemed to be so fun, but as more and more teachers assigned us these multimedia projects, it made me wonder what the point is. Yet, I prefer multimedia over essays. I agree with what Younsuk had to say about technology, but I think it’s an efficient of making learning rather interesting and active rather than sitting on a hard chair all night studying for a test. I agree with you that blogs let us impact the teachers and speak out.

  11. Clay,
    This post has inspired me to comment on a blog post. Not many do that but this one is too good, too big to let go for me personally. At the risk of sounding like I am trying to blow smoke up your ass, I am not. Rather, I am inspired that if one can do it, others can too.

    Doing the same old thing under the guise of 21st century learning. This should be a real concern as we all push forward in our eagerness to provide our students and our schools “21st century education”. Professional development, I am beginning to think, needs to strive to teach teachers to think outside of the box, to refute the concept of a text book (as if one book could possibly compete with the web or contain all of the information on a subject while also staying current and relevant), and to DREAM. It should help teachers find the things they are passionate about and to illuminate the channels on how best to pass this passion for learning onto their kids. We need to push creativity in our teachers and not just in the Fine Arts Depts. Of our school. Simply teaching tools for professional development (web 2.0-blogs, wikis, etc, etc.) is akin to teaching teachers how a whiteboard differs from a chalkboard. The paradigm of instruction in that model does not change nor will it. If we want change it is not about the tools as much as allowing teachers to stretch beyond the confines of what school is and what school could be. It is showing them what these possibilities might look like and how teaching differently can still satisfy their standards and curriculum. It is about allowing students and teachers to fail. Clay, you did not devise your PLN class by following the path of least resistance, AKA-the pre-industrial educational paradigm, instead you broke free from it completely simply by asking the question at some point in your own mind, “I wonder what would happen if I designed a class like…” That is a huge leap for an educator to make and the vast majority of educators are not comfortable in making it because they themselves are too constrained in the system; too spoon fed themselves. Clay you took a risk, you did not know the outcome, nor were you deterred by that. Instead you were curious about trying curious and something that had value to you. This student reflects this in his own projects and learning. It is real learning not the scripted text book regurgitation that we have become so accustomed to call learning. It is at its most basic element an experiment and as such it holds the real possibility of failure. Experiments and learning should be synonymous but rarely are in our schools as experimentation does not fit into our scripted, get the answer correct, don’t think, wonder or be curious curricula that most of our schools adhere to. The learning your student(s) has been most touched by, the most passionate about, is real authentic learning, unscripted, and sometimes messy. It made sense to them because it was real to them. They talked to real people. Sure they blogged about it, maybe you even had them make a wiki or god forbid another iMovie but this was not at the heart of your lesson or class and your student(s) recognized that.

    Kudos for you from breaking free, for taking the risk to fail, and to Wonder…
    Stay curious friend

  12. 1 2 1 has become the NBT or Next Big Thing and, as Younsuk says its sas more about administrators wanting to look and sound cool, that about anything to do with learning. I have visited three 1 2 1 schools and understand exactly what Younsuk is saying about death by iMovie and seen for teachers – and good teachers at that – struggling to work out exactly what they should be doing with all this technology. They’ve been given the training but not the professional development to enable them to develop strategies for embedding technology into their practice. The students are also not convinced and, as some have said to me, they actually feel insecure in a 1 2 1 classroom. This should come as no surprise – good learning happens when teachers and students can manage the learning outcomes together – when they both understand the resources. These students are telling me that they feel insecure when they are left to work out how to use the technology. It’s a complicity which makes them feel uncomfortble. OK to get away with playing games, fiddling with facebook, MSM chatting or just cruising the net, but when it’s clear the teachers can see through this charade they know their learning is at risk.
    The Digital Native mantra doesn’t help because it creates this misleading notion that they are learning with the technology. Read the Demos report on My Space whcih says that only 20% of the kids use technology purposefully. Students don’t naturally see the link between wikis and blogging and learning, they need their teachers to understand this.

  13. Dammit, all I can think if is “what he said … what she said … what he said …”

    I’m simply blown away at the discussion and have enjoyed being a spectator. The devil on my shoulder, btw, is saying that if we start slowly enough and build we can use this technology for the ultimate purpose: the “bloody” revolution that will bring down standardized testing.

    “Was it over when the Germans bombed Pearl Harbor?”

    Toms last blog post..I don’t feel bad about letting you go, I just feel sad about letting you know.

  14. Everybody, just for the record, I’m buried with final grading and other things. I’m enjoying the comments here, and look forward to jumping into the conversation when I tunnel out of the avalanche.

    Michael – damn, here I go, against my better scheduling judgment – I agree with the thrust of your approach, and would only add that somewhere, somehow, students (and goodness help us, teachers) have to be trained in the elements of quality for any mode of communication – film, podcast, blog post, essay, whatever – in order to prevent mountains of trash that show no skills development taking place.

    And that would be easy enough to do, if administration understood the importance of it, and scheduled schoolwide student workshops in the “grammar” and “aesthetics,” so to speak, of each of these communicative arts. Otherwise, it’s crap production and amateurism at its worst. And students “skilled” in making crappy multimedia are not going to be valued for that skill in any future. (There are other solutions, by the way, than a schoolwide workshop – but we have to beware of expecting enough faculty know-how or buy-in to leave the skills-training of students up to them.)

    More later, all. As Tom says, and as I’m eternally grateful for as well, the comments on this space blow me away, as a rule. What a bunch of cool, smart, engaging people I’m lucky enough to interact with here.

    Clay Burells last blog post..An Old Prophecy Confirmed? On the Uses and Abuses of Laptop Learning

  15. Clay, I totally agree, that somewhere along the way both teachers and students need to learn what a good product looks like and how to make one.

    David Warlick just posted a better-written variant of the idea I was trying to get across (

    “It is certainly one of the most interesting aspects of the read/write web that so much of it has come from very small, garage and dorm-room endeavors, and that the growing toolset lends itself to inventiveness among its users — emoting a do-it-yourself (DIY) spirit.

    As we continue to promote the use of a more participatory information landscape for learning environments, I think that we should be explicitly promoting this DIY aspect — a sense that the information can be shaped and controlled by professional educators, and that sharing this control with students can be an appropriate, information-abundant, learning pedagogy. ”

    I hope he doesn’t mind the quote. “Sharing the control” is what I was trying to say.

    Michael McGlade (mcglaysia)s last blog post..Let the students drive?

  16. Timely post…I’m really struggling with these ideas as I reflect on this year and begin planning for next year. It’s a process. A difficult process.
    I’m learning from you, from my students, from other educators…and I’m trying (desperately) to figure out how in the hell I make this all meaningful and relevant and not just to “look cool”.
    You’ll be missed here, Clay. It’s good to know that you’ll always be HERE and that you’ll still be in Seoul.
    And who took your new picture? It’s excellent.

  17. At the moment I’m reading Larry Cuban’s “Oversold & underused – computers in the classroom” which taps right into this same discussion. He analyzes how not only teachers but other professions use new technology to fit their old practice – it doesn’t make them (we) change what they (we) actually do. So I’m not surprised at all at finding teachers using their new tool iMovies for homework assignments and not recognizing how the use of a new tool actually can change the learning experience of the student.

  18. Hrmm, yes and no!
    As a science teacher the tech does more for me than simply offer another avenue for assessment and learning. Science is very much about data acquisition and analysis. Reliable data can be used in many ways both to show what SHOULD happen and as a follow up to show what data they SHOULD have acquired but didn’t due to error. Both are educational.

    The fact is the whole shebang is wrapped up in a late 19th, early 20th century paradigm – training workers, not thinkers. I do NOT think we are going to get the authenticity we want within the current system. It needs to rehaul from the ground up – or perhaps top [universities] down. Either way fitting the 21st century educational paradigm – whatever we may THINK that to be – into the old is not, in my opinion, the way to go.

    We need to remove the walls. I truly mean the structures that frame current classrooms. Time [why 8-4?], age [why not by interest?], curriculum [why can’t they decide?].

    I encourage you to add your thoughts and designs at:

    I really hope to start the school that takes shape. Someone has to! If not us, who. If not now, when?


    linzels last blog post..Phoenix on Mars – 18:00 hours and counting!

  19. Hmm…While I certainly try to be cognizant of end-of-the year overload, (one of my students likened last week to having her head opened with a can opener) I’m not sure that creating a quality movie project should take any more time than, say, writing a quality essay, or quality study time for a Final.

    Still…if poor Younsuk has to face what amounts to four or five iterations of the exact same final project, I can certainly sympathize.
    iMovie is easy. It’s probably the first discovery made by a teacher branching into ‘techi-ness’ for the first time(at least it was by me).
    It’s great when the class is doing something well, like a lab or activity, to just say, “Everyone! Flip open your macbooks and record this awesome-ness!”

  20. My son and fellow co-learner gave me this link. I think you know Wade from another time and place. It seems we are always trying to create some magic in our classes. And yes, the interruptions break the spell. I go home some days after class discouraged and wishing I could have just captured that magic moment, or given that critical piece of insight, or taught them at least something useful. And then later, my students tell me how much they got out of that lesson, discussion, or assignment. And it hits me again. The magic is not in what I do or what I create. Its in how my students take my stuff, use it in their own way and construct there own view of the world.

    Thinking about your 1:1 laptop world, the magic is not in the technology. The magic is in our students innovation and permutations with those learning tools. As teachers we try to fit the same old things we used to do to fit into these new tools. Of course its not just educators trying to retrofit old lesson plans with new and cool teaching stuff. I’m just old enough to remember the development of TV news broadcasting. When TV news started, it didn’t look anything like today. The TV anchor basically just read the newspaper to the camera. It took a Walter Cronkite or a Edward R. Murrow to redefine the media and find new ways of delivering information that the older media hands could not have even imagined.

    And so it goes. I find magic and gold in my students as they wander through the maze of uselessness and find meaning. A J.R.R. Tolkien poem from the Lord of the Rings is my favorite

    All that is gold does not glitter,
    Not all those who wander are lost;
    The old that is strong does not wither,
    Deep roots are not reached by the frost.
    From the ashes a fire shall be woken,
    A light from the shadows shall spring;
    Renewed shall be blade that was broken,
    The crownless again shall be king.

  21. As always I struggle constantly with this. I’m not sure its an excuse being a science teacher is valid but the fact is that strong fundamentals need to be mastered before the next steps are taken. Digital tech is fun but it is more important to stimulate general inquiry and creativity. Techy tools can help with this but the ‘movement’ to redesign school is not about tech, it is about moving away from the lower rungs of bloom’s taxonomy towards the upper levels. The fact is being to able to evaluate and create are the top rungs of the pyramid, originality and creativeness cannot be mandated, only encouraged. Also, most of our creativity is killed off by the current societal structure and an industrial model educational system. Both need to change.
    As much as we techy teachers wish, students enjoy computer based software but it doesn’t necessarily stimulate creativity. It needs to be a broad based attack across the curriculum. The walls between subjects need removal. The layers of age abolished. Helping students recognize their individual passions and development of creativity within this passion sphere are what is necessary. This requires convincing principals, superintendents, parents, government.
    How do we do this and still have students receive a broad based inter disciplinary study? Answer is I think : individual curricula. Watch the movie ‘accepted’ for the general idea.


    i’m just spewing.

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